Linux File Operations
- explore the file system
- explain the file architecture
- compare files and identify different file types
- backup and compress data
In Linux “almost” everything is a file, or treated as such.
Linux native file systems:
Linux can implement other file systems:
- windows (ntfs, fat, vfat)
- macos (hfs, hfs+)
On a hard disk, partitions can organize data. Each partition can have its own file system.
A file system can be mounted at a mount point (usually an empty directory). If the directory is not empty, the contents of that directory are covered-up by the new file system and will not be available until the file system is unmounted.
# mount a file system $ sudo mount /dev/sda5 /home # unmount a filesystem/partition $ sudo unmount /home
To automatically mount a filesystem every time the system starts up edit the /etc/fstab file.
# show mounted filesystems $ df -hT # display read-only or writable status of mounted file system $ mount
# enable NFS $ sudo systemctl enable nfs # start NSF $ sudo systemctl start nsf
File /etc/exports contains the directory permissions. After modifying /etc/exports, run exportfs -av to notify Linux about directories that can be remotely mounted.
/proc contains virtual files that permit viewing constantly changing kernel data.
/dev contains device nodes.
/var contains files that are expected to change in size as the system is running.
- /var/logs – system logs
- /var/lib – package and database files
- /var/spool – print queues
- /var/tmp – temporary files
/etc directory contains system configuration files; no binary programs
/boot directory contains essential files needed to boot the system. For every alternative kernel installed on the system there are four files:
- vmlinuz – compressed linux kernel
- initramfs – initial ram file system required fr booting (aka initrd)
- config – configuration file
- system.map – kernel symbol table (used for debugging)
GRUB files are also located in the /boot folder
/lib folder contains libraries for programs located in the /bin or /sbin folders.
diff [options] <fileName1> <fileName2>
diff3 – compare changes make to 3 different files.
# compare the content of 3 files $ diff3 myFile refFile yourFile
# creating a patch file $ diff -NUr origFile newFile > patchFile # apply the patch file patch -p1 > patchFile patch originalFile patchFile
# file utility; get information about the file $ file fileName
Backing up data
Use rsync to backup data.
$ rsync --progress -avrxH sourceDir destDir
- gzip – most common compression utility
- bzip2 – produces smaller files than gzip
- xz – most space efficient
- zip – similar to gzip
- unzip – extract all files in the backup file
- tar – group files in an archive before compressing
Prefix compression commands with time to display compression times and sizes.
$ time tar zcf include.tar.gz include
# backup the Master Boot Record $ dd if=/dev/sda of=sda.mbr bs=512 count=1 # copy one disk to another $ dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb